Monocytes are a unique class of white blood cells that are produced by the bone marrow and other parts of the immune system.
Monocytes are the second largest type of white blood cell and can differentiate themselves into macrophage and monocyte lineage dendrites cells. Monocytes also effect the production of antigen-specific adaptive immunity and are present in large numbers in the blood stream.
Monocytes can activate the immune system to produce both inflammatory responses and to regulate the proliferation of monocytes in the bloodstream. Monocytes can be stimulated by substances that are harmful to the skin, such as ultraviolet light, and they may travel through the blood stream to the site of infection where they can be activated by the organism causing the infection and by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines.
Monocytes have various processes in the body and they can be activated to perform several functions. For example, monocytes that express cytokine receptor on their surface to produce T-cells (Thymocytes) which produce T-cells. Monocytes have the ability to produce additional T-cells when stimulated by a cytokine; however, only some T-cells will be produced. The T-cells are then directed to a specific site and the effector cells begin the task of eliminating the infection causing bacteria.
Monocytes that are activated by a substance can produce natural killer cells (Throngocytes) that are specialized in killing bacteria and viruses. Natural Killer Cells can also help kill cancer cells. Monocytes can also increase the production of antibodies to neutralize viruses and bacteria.
Monocyte receptors can also affect the production of antibodies against foreign organisms such as Mycobacteria that cause infections. Monocyte receptor-antigen interactions can cause the generation of antibody-antigen complexes, and monocytes can stimulate the production of antibody-specific T cells which kill bacteria. Monocyte receptors can also stimulate the secretion of substances which inhibit the growth of bacteria.
Monocyte receptors also affect the development and migration of T-cells and the development and activity of myeloid cells.
T-cells, which are the body’s natural defense system against pathogens, have the ability to secrete T-cells that can stimulate myeloid cells which can produce Th-cells and effector cells which produce T-cells. Monocytes may stimulate eyelids to develop and migrate to the site of infection, and they can stimulate the production of antibodies and other effector cells to eliminate the infected cells.
Monocyte receptors can also stimulate the growth and migration of Dendritic Cells (T-cells that produce Th-cells). Dendritic Cells can stimulate T-cells to produce other cells that can cause the production of Dendritic Cell-activating B-cells that can produce T-cells that can cause further activation of T-cells to produce even more T-cells to attack and kill pathogens.
Monocyte receptors can stimulate the production of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) that can help fight infections. Monocyte receptors can also promote the synthesis of the natural killer cells, which can destroy pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. Monocyte receptors can produce substances that promote the production of nitric oxide that can stimulate the production of another class of effector cells known as the natural killer cells that can stimulate the production of natural killer cells that can also affect the production of dendritic cells to increase the number of monocytes in the blood stream and decrease the production of T-cells.
Monocyte receptors can also stimulate the production of macrophages, which are a type of white blood cell which can reduce the number of T-cells in the blood stream and increase the number of macrophages. Macrophages play a role in destroying invading pathogens and are involved in protecting the lungs. Monocytes can increase the production of chemicals that prevent the development of pathogens.
Monocyte receptors can be found throughout the body and they can be found on the surface of the skin, hair follicles, joints and muscle tissue. The monocyte receptors on the surface of the skin can stimulate the production of antibodies that can cause the production of cytokines that can cause an inflammatory response in the body, including those that are involved in allergies, asthma, autoimmune disorders and asthma. The monocyte receptors on the surface of the intestine can stimulate production of leukotriene T-cells, which can reduce the production of antibodies that can cause inflammation of the immune system.
Monocyte receptors can also stimulate production of the substance that can produce the immune system to respond to an infectious agent by causing the activation of natural killer cells that can cause the production of inflammatory cytokines that can cause disease. Monocytes can also play a role in the growth and development of lymphocytes and lymphoid tissue, which can help to maintain the body’s natural ability to fight infections.